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[Đọc hiểu] Theme 1. Environment and Nature (Môi trường và thế giới tự nhiên)

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Nguyễn Văn Thiệp

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Read the passages and choose the best answer for each question
Although noise, commonly defined as unwanted sound, is a widely recognized form of pollution, it is very difficult to measure because the discomfort experienced by different individuals is highly subjective and, therefore, variable. Exposure to lower levels of noise may be slightly irritating, whereas exposure to higher levels may actually cause hearing loss. Particularly in congested urban areas, the noise produced as a by-product of our advancing technology causes physical and psychological harm, and distracts from the quality of life for those who are exposed to it.
Unlike the eyes, which can be covered by eyelids against strong light, the ear has no lid, and is, therefore, always open and vulnerable; noise penetrates without protection.
Noise causes effects that the hearer cannot control and to which the body never becomes accustomed. Loud noises instinctively signal danger to any organism with a hearing mechanism, including human beings. In response, heartbeat and respiration accelerate, blood vessels constrict, the skin pales, and muscles tense. In fact, there is a general increase in functioning brought about by the flow of adrenaline released in response to fear, and some of these responses persist even longer than the noise, occasionally as long as thirty minutes after the sound has ceased.
Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in a same way that we would response to danger. Recently, researchers have concluded that noise and our response may be much more than an annoyance. It may be a serious threat to physical and psychological health and well-being, causing damage not only to the ear and brain but also to the heart and stomach. We have long known that hearing loss is America’s number one nonfatal health problem, but now we are learning that some of us with heart disease and ulcers may be victims of health as well. Fetuses exposed to noise tend to be overactive, they cry easily, and they are more sensitive to gastrointestinal problems after birth. In addition, the psychic effect of noise is very important. Nervousness, irritability, tension, and anxiety increase, affecting the quality of rest during sleep, and the efficiency of activities during walking hours, as well as the way that we interact with each other.
Question 1. Which of the following is the author’s main point?
A. Noise may pose a serious threat to our physical and psychological health.
B. Loud noises signal danger.
C. Hearing loss is America’s number one nonfatal health problem.
D. The ear is not like the eye.
Question 2. According to the passage, what is noise?
A. Unwanted sound
B. A by-product of technology
C. Physical and psychological harm
D. Congestion
Question 3. Why is noise difficult to measure?
A. It causes hearing loss.
B. All people do not respond to it in the same way.
C. It is unwanted.
D. People become accustomed to it.
Question 4. The word congested in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by
A. hazardous
B. polluted
C. crowded
D. rushed

Question 5. The word “by-product” as used in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. a necessary product
B. a product that is always by your side

C. an unexpected result
D. something that is produced by environmental pollution

Question 6. It can be inferred from the passage that the eye

A. responds to fear
B. enjoys greater protection than the ear

C. increases functions
D. is damaged by noise

Question 7. According to the passage, people respond to loud noise in the same way that they respond to

A. annoyance
B. disease
C. damage
D. danger

Question 8. The word accelerate in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

A. decrease
B. alter
C. increase
D. release

Question 9. The word it in the first paragraph refers to

A. the noise
B. the quality of life
C. advancing technology
D. a by-product

Question 10. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

A. Noise is sometimes annoying.

B. Noise is America’s number one problem.

C. Noise is an unavoidable problem in an industrial society.

D. Noise is a complex problem.

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